Author Topic: Hardware Troubleshooting Techniques  (Read 582 times)


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Hardware Troubleshooting Techniques
« on: April 03, 2013, 01:28:54 PM »
If the system produces an error message (such as ďThe system has detected
unstable RAM at location xĒ) or a beep code before the single beep occurs,
the system has found a problem with the hardware. In this case, a bad RAM
memory device is indicated.
Typically, if the startup process reaches the point at which the systemís
CMOS configuration information is displayed onscreen, you can safely
assume that no hardware configuration conflicts exist in the systemís basic
components. After this point in the bootup process, the system begins loading
drivers for optional devices and additional memory.
If the error occurs after the CMOS screen displays and before the bootup
tone, you must clean boot the system and single-step through the remainder
of the bootup sequence.
You can still group errors that occur before the beep into two distinct categories:
➤ Configuration errors
➤ Hardware failures
A special category of problems tends to occur when a new hardware option
is added to the system, or when the system is used for the very first time.
These problems are called configuration problems, or setup problems. These
problems result from mismatches between the systemís programmed configuration
held in CMOS memory and the actual equipment installed in the
It is usually necessary to access the systemís CMOS setup utility in the following
three situations:
➤ When the system is first constructed.
➤ When it becomes necessary to replace the CMOS backup battery on the
system board.
➤ When a new or different option is added to the system (such as memory
devices, hard drives, floppy drives, or video display), it might be necessary
to access the setup utility to accept the changes that have been
In most systems, the BIOS and operating system use plug-and-play techniques
to detect new hardware that has been installed in the system. These
components work together with the device to allocate system resources for
the device. In some situations, the PnP logic is not able to resolve all the sys-